Sociology is the science of society. No other science endeavors to study it in its entirety. Economics studies man as a wealth-getter and wealth-disposer and inquires into the relations of wealth and welfare. History deals with the human past in accordance with the time order.
Cultural Anthropology studies man, particularly the primitive man and it concentrates more on the primitive communities and their cultures. Psychology studies the man as a behaving individual. Social Psychology, as a branch of psychology, is concerned with the ways in which the individual reacts to his social conditions.
Political Science studies man as a citizen, as a ruler and as being ruled. Religion deals with man as a spiritual being and inquires into his faith in the supernatural power. Sociology alone studies social relationships, society itself.
Thus the focus’ of no other social science is identical with that of sociology. Indeed, it is the focus of interest that distinguishes one social science from another.
Sociology is interested in social relationships not because they are economic or political or religious or legal or educational but because they are at the same time, social. “Society”, as MacIver says, “is the marvellously intricate and ever-changing pattern of the totality of these relationships”.
Further, in sociology we do not study everything that happens “in society” or under social conditions. But we study culture, for example, only for the light it throws on social relationships.
Similarly, we do not study religion as religion or art as art or inventions as inventions. We study social relationships, their specific forms, varieties and patternings. We study how the relations combine, how they build up smaller or greater systems, and how they respond to changes and changing demands or needs. Hence our study of society is essentially analytical.