(ii) The second tendency was towards specialisation of individual social sciences. It was this opposite tendency of specialisation or differentiation that won out. In spite of the dreams of Comte, Spencer, Marx and others, there were to be found at the end of the 19th century not one, but several distinct, competitive social sciences.
Development of colleges and universities throughout Europe and America very strongly supported this process. These formal educational institutions in fact, started the “age of specialisation”.
This began first in Germany and later on spread to England, America, France and other countries. The philosophy of specialisation became so fascinating that no major field of study could escape the lure of specialisation.