Population density is also measured as abundance of absolute number of population. Generally, in an area smaller animals are more abundant than larger animals.
Crude density is the density per unit total space. For e.g., in plant species like Cassia torn individuals are found more crowded in shady patches and few in other parts of same area.
Thus, density in the total area would be crude density, whereas the density value for only shady area would be ecological density.
World Human Population Growth Trend
After every 12 years, the world’s population grows 15,000 each hour or 90 million per year. The rate of natural population growth is 0.5% per year in the developed countries and about 2% in a year in the developing nation. India which has 16% of the world’s total population will continue to be holding this position till 2025.
Cities with more than 10 million populations are called mega cities. In 1992 there were 14 and in 2005 there were 24 megacities.
The precisely statistical study of human population is called demography. It takes in account the age and sex ratio of human population. Moreover their size is also considered to make future predictions about population growth.
Affects of Population Growth
i. The rapid growth of population balances the country’s political and administrative apparatus plus it imposes a variety of burdens on the social structure also. Population growth affects the medical, educational, water, housing service and creates problems to the govt.
ii. Over exploitation of land, resources of food and fuel in developing countries results in to making the country more and more poor. It happens due to oversized population.
Causes of Rapidly Growing Populations
(a) High birth rate, low death rate and more immigrants.
(b) Various racial and economic factors for high birth rate.
(b) More village and slow rate of urbanization.
(c) Dominance of agriculture and unchanged occupational distribution of populations.
(a) Lack of education
(b) Joint family system
(c) Universality of marriage
(d) Religious and social superstition which induces people to have more kids.
Measures to Check Population Growth
(a) Education expansion.
(b) Improvement in women’s conditions.
(a) Employment opportunities in urban areas
(b) Equitable distribution of income.
Family Planning Programme (FPP)
It was initiated in 1952 which shed in 1966-67 measures to be taken are as follows:-
1. Promotion of education and employment
2. To remove speculations about family planning measures
3. To extend child health care and nutritional services.